SubX is a notation for a subset of x86 machine code. The Mu translator is implemented in SubX and also emits SubX code.

Here’s an example program in SubX that adds 1 and 1 and returns the result to the parent shell process:

== code
  # ebx = 1
  bb/copy-to-ebx  1/imm32
  # increment ebx
  # exit(ebx)
  e8/call  syscall_exit/disp32

The syntax of SubX instructions

Just like in regular machine code, SubX programs consist mostly of instructions, which are basically sequences of numbers (always in hex). Instructions consist of words separated by whitespace. Words may be opcodes (defining the operation being performed) or arguments (specifying the data the operation acts on). Any word can have extra metadata attached to it after /. Some metadata is required (like the /imm32 and /imm8 above), but unrecognized metadata is silently skipped so you can attach comments to words (like the instruction name /copy-to-ebx above, or the /exit argument).

What do all these numbers mean? SubX supports a small subset of the 32-bit x86 instruction set that likely runs on your computer. (Think of the name as short for “sub-x86”.) The instruction set contains instructions like 89/copy, 01/add, 3d/compare and 51/push-ecx which modify registers and a byte-addressable memory. For a complete list of supported instructions, run bootstrap help opcodes.

The registers instructions operate on are as follows:

(Intel processors support a 16-bit mode and 64-bit mode. SubX will never support them. There are also many more instructions that SubX will never support.)

While SubX doesn’t provide the usual mnemonics for opcodes, it does provide error-checking. If you miss an argument or accidentally add an extra argument, you’ll get a nice error. SubX won’t arbitrarily interpret bytes of data as instructions or vice versa.

It’s worth distinguishing between an instruction’s arguments and its operands. Arguments are provided directly in instructions. Operands are pieces of data in register or memory that are operated on by instructions.

Intel processors typically operate on no more than two operands, and at most one of them (the ‘reg/mem’ operand) can access memory. The address of the reg/mem operand is constructed by expressions of one of these forms:

Under the hood, SubX turns expressions of these forms into multiple arguments with metadata in some complex ways. See the doc on bare SubX.

That covers the complexities of the reg/mem operand. The second operand is simpler. It comes from exactly one of the following argument types:

Putting all this together, here’s an example that adds the integer in eax to the one at address edx:

01/add %edx 0/r32/eax

The syntax of SubX programs

SubX programs consist of functions and global variables. It’s very important the two stay separate; executing data as code is the most common vector for security issues. Consequently, SubX programs maintain separate code and data segments. To add to a segment, specify it using a == header.

Details of segment header syntax depend on where you want the program to run:

Segments can be added to.

== code 0x09000000  # first mention requires starting address on Linux

== data 0x0a000000

== code             # no address necessary when adding

The code segment now contains the instructions of A as well as C.

Within the code segment, each line contains a comment, label or instruction. Comments start with a # and are ignored. Labels should always be the first word on a line, and they end with a :.

Instructions can refer to labels in displacement or immediate arguments, and they’ll obtain a value based on the address of the label: immediate arguments will contain the address directly, while displacement arguments will contain the difference between the address and the address of the current instruction. The latter is mostly useful for jump and call instructions.

Functions are defined using labels. By convention, labels internal to functions (that must only be jumped to) start with a $. Any other labels must only be called, never jumped to. All labels must be unique.

Functions are called using the following syntax:

(func arg1 arg2 ...)

Function arguments must be either literals (integers or strings) or a reg/mem operand using the syntax in the previous section.

Another special pair of labels are the block delimiters { and }. They can be nested, and jump instructions can take arguments loop or break that jump to the enclosing { and } respectively.

The data segment consists of labels as before and byte values. Referring to data labels in either code segment instructions or data segment values yields their address.

Automatic tests are an important part of SubX, and there’s a simple mechanism to provide a test harness: all functions that start with test- are called in turn by a special, auto-generated function called run-tests. How you choose to call it is up to you.

I try to keep things simple so that there’s less work to do when implementing SubX in SubX. But there is one convenience: instructions can provide a string literal surrounded by quotes (") in an imm32 argument. SubX will transparently copy it to the data segment and replace it with its address. Strings are the only place where a SubX word is allowed to contain spaces.

That should be enough information for writing SubX programs. The linux/ directory provides some fodder for practice in the linux/ex*.subx files, giving a more gradual introduction to SubX features. In particular, you should work through linux/factorial4.subx, which demonstrates all the above ideas in concert.